GOD'S CHOICE. Like Saul and David before him, Solomon was anointed as king both privately and publicly. Solomon was anointed hastily the first time because his brother Adonijah had proclaimed himself king. Zadok and Nathan anointed him as God's chosen and seated him on the throne before Adonijah could claim it (1 Kings 1:38-40). Similarly, Samuel anointed Saul the first time as a sign that God had chosen Saul (1 Samuel 10:1). Likewise, Samuel anointed David privately the first time to declare him as God's choice to replace Saul (1 Samuel 16:12-13).
CHOICE ACKNOWLEDGED. Solomon was anointed a second time before all the leaders of Israel. All Israel (officers, soldiers, and the king's sons) acknowledged Solomon as their king at the second anointing. Similarly, David was anointed again publicly both when Judah acknowledged him (2 Samuel 2:4) and when all Israel acknowledged him as God's chosen king (2 Samuel 5:3). (Saul was also later acknowledged as king, but a second anointing is not mentioned; see 2 Samuel 10:24; 11:14-15.)
JESUS, THE ANOINTED ONE. The Scriptures seldom mention whether later kings were anointed. It seems likely that most in Judah were anointed, but still it is seldom mentioned. However, the Psalms and prophets often speak of an ideal, anointed (messianic) king, and it is this king that was the hope of Israel. Jesus fulfilled the promised hope. He is spoken of as the Christ/Messiah/Anointed One. Jesus said that the words of Isaiah were fulfilled in him:
The Spirit of the Lord is on me, because he has anointed me to preach good news to the poor.Similarly, Peter declared that "God anointed Jesus of Nazareth with the Holy Spirit and power" (Acts 10:38). Today, Jesus is God's chosen king. God has anointed him, and we should acknowledge him and submit to him in all things.
-- Luke 4:18 (NIV)